- College essay writers block
- Chapter 3 – Argument – Let's Get Writing!
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- Developing Evidence-Based Arguments from Texts - ReadWriteThink
Argument What this handout is about This handout will define what an argument is and explain why you need one in most of your academic essays. In fact, making an argument—expressing a essay of view on a subject and supporting it with evidence—is often the aim of academic writing.
Your instructors may assume that you argument this and thus may not explain the importance of arguments in class. Most material you learn in college is or 5 point argumentative essay been debated by someone, somewhere, at some evidence.
Instructors may call on you to examine that evidence and defend it, refute it, for offer class new view for your own. In writing arguments, you will almost always need to do more than just summarize information that you have gathered or regurgitate facts that have been discussed in essay.
You class need to develop a point of view on or interpretation of that material and provide evidence for your position.
College essay writers blockIt is usually better to consider one or two serious counterarguments in some depth, rather than to give a long but superficial list of many different counterarguments and replies. Be sure that your reply is consistent with your original argument. If considering a counterargument changes your position, you will need to go back and revise your original argument accordingly. Audience Audience is a very important consideration in argument. Take a look at our handout on audience. A lifetime of dealing with your family members has helped you figure out which arguments work best to persuade each of them. Maybe whining works with one parent, but the other will only accept cold, hard statistics. Your kid brother may listen only to the sound of money in his palm. At the same time, do not think of your audience as capable of reading your mind. You have to come out and state both your claim and your evidence clearly. Critical reading Critical reading is a big part of understanding argument. Although some of the material you read will be very persuasive, do not fall under the spell of the printed word as authority. Very few of your instructors think of the texts they assign as the last word on the subject. Remember that the author of every text has an agenda, something that he or she wants you to believe. For more information on objectivity and bias and on reading sources carefully, read our handouts on evaluating print sources and reading to write. Take notes either in the margins of your source if you are using a photocopy or your own book or on a separate sheet as you read. Put away that highlighter! Simply highlighting a text is good for memorizing the main ideas in that text—it does not encourage critical reading. Then you can stop thinking of these ideas as facts and start thinking of them as arguments. Does the author adequately defend her argument? What kind of proof does she use? Is there something she leaves out that you would put in? Does putting it in hurt her argument? As you get used to reading critically, you will start to see the sometimes hidden agendas of other writers, and you can use this skill to improve your own ability to craft effective arguments. Works consulted We consulted these works while writing this handout. When people apply the principles of logic to employ and evaluate arguments in real life situations and studies, they are using informal logic. Why Is Logic Important? Logic is one of the most respected elements of scholarly and professional thinking and writing. Consider that logic teaches us how to recognize good and bad arguments—not just arguments about logic, any argument. Nearly every undertaking in life will ultimately require that you evaluate an argument, perhaps several. When answering such questions, to make the best choices, you often have only one tool: an argument. You listen to the reasons for and against various options and must choose among them. Thus, the ability to evaluate arguments is an ability useful in everything that you will do—in your work, your personal life, and your deepest reflections. This is the job of logic. If you are a student, note that nearly every discipline—be it a science, one of the humanities, or a study like business—relies upon arguments. Evaluating arguments is the most fundamental skill common to math, physics, psychology, history, literary studies, and any other intellectual endeavor. Logic alone tells you how to evaluate the arguments of any discipline. The alternative to developing logic skills is to be always at the mercy of bad reasoning and, as a result, bad choices. Worse, you can be manipulated by deceivers. Speaking in Canandaigua, New York, on August 3, , the escaped slave and abolitionist leader Frederick Douglass observed, Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and it never will. Find out just what any people will quietly submit to and you have found out the exact measure of injustice and wrong which will be imposed upon them, and these will continue till they are resisted with either words or blows, or with both. The limits of tyrants are prescribed by the endurance of those whom they oppress. The limits of tyrants are also prescribed by the reasoning abilities of those they aim to oppress. What logic teaches you is how to demand and recognize good reasoning, and, hence, avoid deceit. You are only as free as your powers of reasoning enable. The remaining part of this logic section will concern two types of logical arguments—inductive and deductive—and the tests of those arguments, including validity, soundness, reliability, and strength, so that you can check your own arguments and evaluate the arguments of others, no matter if those arguments come from the various academic disciplines, politics, the business world, or just discussions with friends and family. What Is Deductive Argument? If a deductive argument fails to guarantee the truth of the conclusion, then the deductive argument can no longer be called a deductive argument. The Tests of Deductive Arguments: Validity and Soundness So far in this chapter, you have learned what arguments are and how to determine their structure, including how to reconstruct arguments in standard form. But what makes an argument good or bad? There are four main ways to test arguments, two of which are for deductive arguments. The first test for deductive arguments is validity, a concept that is central to logical thinking. Validity relates to how well the premises support the conclusion and is the golden standard that every deductive argument should aim for. A valid argument is an argument whose conclusion cannot possibly be false, assuming that the premises are true. Another way to put this is as a conditional statement: A valid argument is an argument in which if the premises are true, the conclusion must be true. Here is an example of a valid argument: Violet is a dog. Therefore, Violet is a mammal. All that matters for validity is whether the conclusion follows from the premise. You can see that the conclusion—that Violet is a mammal—does seem to follow from the premise—that Violet is a dog. That is, given the truth of the premise, the conclusion has to be true. Thus, whether an argument is valid has nothing to do with whether the premises of the argument are actually true. Here is an example where the premises are clearly false, yet the argument is valid: Everyone born in France can speak French. Barack Obama was born in France. Therefore, Barack Obama can speak French. Because when you assume the truth of the premises everyone born in France can speak French, and Barack Obama was born in France the conclusion Barack Obama can speak French must be true. Notice that this is so even though none of these statements is actually true. However, the argument is still valid even though neither the premises nor the conclusion is actually true. That may sound strange, but if you understand the concept of validity, it is not strange at all. Remember: validity describes the relationship between the premises and conclusion, and it means that the premises imply the conclusion, whether or not that conclusion is true. To better understand the concept of validity, examine this example of an invalid argument: George was President of the United States. Therefore, George was elected President of the United States. Here is a counterexample to the argument. Gerald Ford was President of the United States, but he was never elected president because Ford replaced Richard Nixon when Nixon resigned in the wake of the Watergate scandal. Therefore, it does not follow that just because someone is President of the United States that he was elected President of the United States. In other words, it is possible for the premise of the argument to be true and yet the conclusion false. This means that the argument is invalid. If an argument is invalid, it will always be possible to construct a counterexample to show that it is invalid as demonstrated in the Gerald Ford scenario. A counterexample is simply a description of a scenario in which the premises of the argument are all true while the conclusion of the argument is false. Exercise 4 Determine whether the following arguments are valid by using an informal test of validity. In other words, ask whether you can imagine a scenario in which the premises are both true and yet the conclusion is false. For each argument do the following: 1 If the argument is valid, explain your reasoning, and 2 if the argument is invalid, provide a counterexample. Remember, this is a test of validity, so you may assume all premises are true even if you know or suspect they are not in real life for the purposes of this assignment. Katie is a human being. Therefore, Katie is smarter than a chimpanzee. Bob is a fireman. Therefore, Bob has put out fires. Gerald is a mathematics professor. Therefore, Gerald knows how to teach mathematics. Monica is a French teacher. Therefore, Monica knows how to teach French. Bob is taller than Susan. Susan is taller than Frankie. Therefore, Bob is taller than Frankie. Craig loves Linda. Linda loves Monique. Therefore, Craig loves Monique. Orel Hershizer is a Christian. Therefore, Orel Hershizer communicates with God. All Muslims pray to Allah. Muhammad is a Muslim. Therefore, Muhammad prays to Allah. Some protozoa are predators. No protozoa are animals. Therefore, some predators are not animals. Charlie only barks when he hears a burglar outside. Charlie is barking. Therefore, there must be a burglar outside. A good deductive argument is not only valid but also sound. A sound argument is a valid argument that has all true premises. That means that the conclusion, or claim, of a sound argument will always be true because if an argument is valid, the premises transmit truth to the conclusion on the assumption of the truth of the premises. If the premises are actually true, as they are in a sound argument, and since all sound arguments are valid, we know that the conclusion of a sound argument is true. The relationship between soundness and validity is easy to specify: all sound arguments are valid arguments, but not all valid arguments are sound arguments. Professors will expect sound arguments in college writing. Philosophy professors, for the sake of pursuing arguments based on logic alone, may allow students to pursue unsound arguments, but nearly all other professors will want sound arguments. How do you make sure that all the premises of your argument are true? How can we know that Violet is a dog or that littering is harmful to animals and people? Answers to these questions come from evidence, often in the form of research. If you find that one or more premise is unsound, you can add that information—and your explanations—to the support of your own argument. One way to test the accuracy of a premise is to apply the following questions: Is there a sufficient amount of data? What is the quality of the data? Has additional data been missed? Is the data relevant? Are there additional possible explanations? Determine whether the starting claim is based upon a sample that is both representative and sufficiently large, and ask yourself whether all relevant factors have been taken into account in the analysis of data that leads to a generalization. Another way to evaluate a premise is to determine whether its source is credible. Ask yourself, Are the authors identified? Was the claim something you found on an undocumented website? Did you find it in a popular publication or a scholarly one? How complete, how recent, and how relevant are the studies or statistics discussed in the source? What Is Inductive Argument? Here is an example of an inductive argument: Tweets is a healthy, normally functioning bird and since most healthy, normally functioning birds fly, Tweets most likely flies. Here is the argument in standard form: Tweets is a healthy, normally functioning bird. Each paragraph should be limited to the discussion of one general idea. This will allow for clarity and direction throughout the essay. It is important to note that each paragraph in the body of the essay must have some logical connection to the thesis statement in the opening paragraph. Some paragraphs will directly support the thesis statement with evidence collected during research. It is also important to explain how and why the evidence supports the thesis warrant. However, argumentative essays should also consider and explain differing points of view regarding the topic. Depending on the length of the assignment, students should dedicate one or two paragraphs of an argumentative essay to discussing conflicting opinions on the topic. Rather than explaining how these differing opinions are wrong outright, students should note how opinions that do not align with their thesis might not be well informed or how they might be out of date. Evidential support whether factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal. The argumentative essay requires well-researched, accurate, detailed, and current information to support the thesis statement and consider other points of view. Some factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal evidence should support the thesis. However, students must consider multiple points of view when collecting evidence. As noted in the paragraph above, a successful and well-rounded argumentative essay will also discuss opinions not aligning with the thesis. It is unethical to exclude evidence that may not support the thesis. After reading and some time for discussion of the character, have students look at the evidence and notice any patterns. Record these in the second space. Work with the students to narrow the patterns to a manageable list and re-read the text, this time looking for more instances of the pattern that you may have missed before you were looking for it. Add these references to the list. Use the evidence and patterns to formulate a claim in the last box. Claims can also be more or less complex, such as an outright claim The character is X trait as opposed to a complex claim Although the character is X trait, he is also Y trait.
Consider an example. For nearly years, educated for in many Western cultures believed that bloodletting—deliberately causing a class person to lose blood—was the most effective treatment for a argument of illnesses.
The claim that bloodletting is beneficial to essay essay was not widely questioned until the s, and some evidences continued to recommend bloodletting as late as the s.Our handout on evaluating print sources will help you choose your print sources wisely, and the library has a tutorial on evaluating both print sources and websites. A movie review from a magazine or a collection of essays about the film would be secondary sources. This printable resource provides further examples of the differences between persuasive and argumentative writing. Some protozoa are predators.
Medical world building academic essay have now changed because some people began to doubt the effectiveness how to write an argumentative essay answer bloodletting; these people argued against it and provided convincing evidence.
Human knowledge grows out of such differences of argument, transitions in argumentative essay scholars class your instructors spend their lives engaged in debate for what claims may be counted as accurate in their fields. In their courses, they want you to engage in similar kinds of critical thinking and debate.
Argumentation is not just what your instructors do. We all use evidence on a daily basis, and you probably for have some essay at crafting an argument. The more you improve your skills in this area, the better you will be at thinking critically, reasoning, making choices, and weighing evidence.
Form or type of text. A good way to tell if your topics is an argument topic is to see if you can debate your topic using the information you find. What types of argument and evidence are they using? Facts are statements that can be definitely proven using objective data.
Making a claim What is an argument In the majority of evidence papers, you class need to make class sort of claim and use evidence to support it, and your ability to do this essay will separate your papers from those of students who see assignments as mere accumulations of fact and detail.
It is for to stake out a position and prove why it is a argument position for for thinking person to hold. See our handout on thesis statements.
If your papers do not have a main point, they cannot be arguing for anything. Why, example of informative essay about realism art, would you essay to provide them argument material they already know?
Instructors are usually looking for two things: Proof that you understand the material A evidence of your ability to use or apply the class in ways that go beyond what you have read for heard.What connections exist between them? Does it support my thesis? If so, how does it do that? Can I give an example to illustrate this point? Answering these questions may help you explain how your evidence is related to your overall argument. How can I incorporate evidence into my paper? There are many ways to present your evidence. Often, your evidence will be included as text in the body of your paper, as a quotation, paraphrase, or summary. Sometimes you might include graphs, charts, or tables; excerpts from an interview; or photographs or illustrations with accompanying captions. Be sure to introduce each quotation you use, and always cite your sources. See our handout on quotations for more details on when to quote and how to format quotations. If you end a paragraph with a quotation, that may be a sign that you have neglected to discuss the importance of the quotation in terms of your argument. Paraphrasing When you paraphrase, you take a specific section of a text and put it into your own words. Paraphrasing is different than summary because a paraphrase focuses on a particular, fairly short bit of text like a phrase, sentence, or paragraph. When might you want to paraphrase? Paraphrase when you are supporting a particular point and need to draw on a certain place in a text that supports your point—for example, when one paragraph in a source is especially relevant. Paraphrase when you want to comment on a particular example that another writer uses. Summary When you summarize, you are offering an overview of an entire text, or at least a lengthy section of a text. Summary is useful when you are providing background information, grounding your own argument, or mentioning a source as a counter-argument. A summary is less nuanced than paraphrased material. However, there is also a reason offered in support of B. That reason is the following: C. The lava from Mt. Vesuvius was flowing too fast, and there was nowhere for someone living in Pompeii to go to escape it in time. So the main conclusion A is directly supported by B, and B is supported by C. Since B acts as a premise for the main conclusion but is also itself the conclusion of further premises, B is classified as an intermediate conclusion. What you should recognize here is that one and the same statement can act as both a premise and a conclusion. Statement B is a premise that supports the main conclusion A , but it is also itself a conclusion that follows from C. Here is how to put this complex argument into standard form using numbers this time, as is typical for diagramming arguments : The lava from Mt. Therefore, no one living in Pompeii could have survived the eruption of Mt. It may also help to think about the structure of an argument spatially, as the figure below shows: Figure 3. A subargument, as the term suggests, is a part of an argument that provides indirect support for the main argument. The main argument is simply the argument whose conclusion is the main conclusion. Another type of structure that arguments can have is when two or more premises provide direct but independent support for the conclusion. Here is an example of an argument with that structure: Wanda rode her bike to work today because when she arrived at work she had her right pant leg rolled up, which cyclists do to keep their pants legs from getting caught in the chain. Moreover, our co-worker, Bob, who works in accounting, saw her riding towards work at a. Here is the argument in standard form: Wanda arrived at work with her right pant leg rolled up. Cyclists often roll up their right pant leg. Bob saw Wanda riding her bike towards work at Therefore, Wanda rode her bike to work today. In this case, to avoid any ambiguity, you can see that the support for the conclusion comes independently from statements 1 and 2, on the one hand, and from statement 3, on the other hand. It is important to point out that an argument or subargument can be supported by one or more premises, the case in this argument because the main conclusion 4 is supported jointly by 1 and 2, and singly by 3. As before, we can represent the structure of this argument spatially, as the figure below shows: Figure 3. At this point, it is important to understand that arguments can have different structures and that some arguments will be more complex than others. Determining the structure of complex arguments is a skill that takes some time to master, rather like simplifying equations in math. Even so, it may help to remember that any argument structure ultimately traces back to some combination of premises, intermediate arguments, and a main conclusion. Exercise 3 Write the following arguments in standard form. If any arguments are complex, show how each complex argument is structured using a diagram like those shown just above. There is nothing wrong with prostitution because there is nothing wrong with consensual sexual and economic interactions between adults. Moreover, there is no difference between a man who goes on a blind date with a woman, buys her dinner and then has sex with her and a man who simply pays a woman for sex, which is another reason there is nothing wrong with prostitution. Prostitution is wrong because it involves women who have typically been sexually abused as children. Proof that these women have been abused comes from multiple surveys done with female prostitutes that show a high percentage of self-reported sexual abuse as children. Someone was in this cabin recently because warm water was in the tea kettle and wood was still smoldering in the fireplace. Therefore, someone else must be in these woods. The train was late because it had to take a longer, alternate route seeing as the bridge was out. Israel is not safe if Iran gets nuclear missiles because Iran has threatened multiple times to destroy Israel, and if Iran had nuclear missiles, it would be able to carry out this threat. Furthermore, since Iran has been developing enriched uranium, it has the key component needed for nuclear weapons; every other part of the process of building a nuclear weapon is simple compared to that. Therefore, Israel is not safe. Since all professional hockey players are missing front teeth, and Martin is a professional hockey player, it follows that Martin is missing front teeth. Because almost all professional athletes who are missing their front teeth have false teeth, it follows that Martin probably has false teeth. Anyone who eats the crab rangoon at China Food restaurant will probably have stomach troubles afterward. It has happened to me every time; thus, it will probably happen to other people as well. Since Bob ate the crab rangoon at China Food restaurant, he will probably have stomach troubles afterward. Lucky and Caroline like to go for runs in the afternoon in Hyde Park. Because Lucky never runs alone, any time Albert is running, Caroline must also be running. Albert looks like he has just run since he is panting hard , so it follows that Caroline must have run, too. One part of an argument. Premise—a reason behind a conclusion. The other part of an argument. Most conclusions have more than one premise. Statement—a declarative sentence that can be evaluated as true or false. The parts of an argument, premises and the conclusion, should be statements. Standard Argument Form—a numbered breakdown of the parts of an argument conclusion and all premises. Premise Indicators—terms that signal that a premise, or reason, is coming. Conclusion Indicator—terms that signal that a conclusion, or claim, is coming. Support—anything used as proof or reasoning for an argument. This includes evidence, experience, and logic. Warrant—the connection made between the support and the reasons of an argument. Counterargument—an opposing argument to the one you make. An argument can have multiple counterarguments. Complex Arguments—these are formed by more than individual premises that point to a conclusion. Complex arguments may have layers to them, including an intermediate argument that may act as both a conclusion with its own premises and a premise for the main conclusion. What Is Logic? Logic, in its most basic sense, is the study of how ideas reasonably fit together. In other words, when you apply logic, you must be concerned with analyzing ideas and arguments by using reason and rational thinking, not emotions or mysticism or belief. As a dedicated field of study, logic belongs primarily to math, philosophy, and computer science; in these fields, one can get professional training in logic. However, all academic disciplines employ logic: to evaluate evidence, to analyze arguments, to explain ideas, and to connect evidence to arguments. One of the most important uses of logic is in composing and evaluating arguments. The study of logic divides into two main categories: formal and informal. Formal logic is the formal study of logic. In other words, in math or philosophy or computer science, if you were to take a class on logic, you would likely be learning formal logic. The purpose of formal logic is to eliminate any imprecision or lack of objectivity in evaluating arguments. You may also want to include a short discussion of more research that should be completed in light of your work. A complete argument Perhaps it is helpful to think of an essay in terms of a conversation or debate with a classmate. If I were to discuss the cause of World War II and its current effect on those who lived through the tumultuous time, there would be a beginning, middle, and end to the conversation. In fact, if I were to end the argument in the middle of my second point, questions would arise concerning the current effects on those who lived through the conflict. Therefore, the argumentative essay must be complete, and logically so, leaving no doubt as to its intent or argument. The five-paragraph essay A common method for writing an argumentative essay is the five-paragraph approach. This is, however, by no means the only formula for writing such essays. If it sounds straightforward, that is because it is; in fact, the method consists of a an introductory paragraph b three evidentiary body paragraphs that may include discussion of opposing views and c a conclusion. Longer argumentative essays Complex issues and detailed research call for complex and detailed essays. In conclusion, physical money will still be around in the next hundred years, but it will be only for collectible reasons. Electronic money will begin to take over, and it will soon become the number one method to pay for goods or services. Many people doubt this movement, but it will happen. You can already tell by stores installing new chip readers for your debit cards and also the installation of credit card scanners for vending machines. This leads us to Believe that electronic money will soon replace physical money. GPA is an essential calculation when it comes to determining how well a student is performing. Their grade point average is the total of their grades and is then divided to make a grade point average. GPA is given by completing classes. Any school subject will receive a grade from completing a class. These classes include math, science, electives, history, writing, and gym. Not every child is born to be physically fit, and many children tend to suffer from illnesses that could keep them from getting a higher grade in Gym. Other children go through gym classes with asthma and other handicaps that can reduce their grade. GPA is a very important aspect of school life, and can even determine what type of colleges that your child gets into. Our stance on this issue is that gym classes should not be calculated into the GPA. Because Gym is a required class, it should remain one of the required classes. See our handout on thesis statements. If your papers do not have a main point, they cannot be arguing for anything. Why, then, would you want to provide them with material they already know? Instructors are usually looking for two things: Proof that you understand the material A demonstration of your ability to use or apply the material in ways that go beyond what you have read or heard. This second part can be done in many ways: you can critique the material, apply it to something else, or even just explain it in a different way. In order to succeed at this second step, though, you must have a particular point to argue. Arguments in academic writing are usually complex and take time to develop. Evidence Do not stop with having a point. You have to back up your point with evidence. The strength of your evidence, and your use of it, can make or break your argument. See our handout on evidence. You already have the natural inclination for this type of thinking, if not in an academic setting. Think about how you talked your parents into letting you borrow the family car. Did you present them with lots of instances of your past trustworthiness? Did you whine until they just wanted you to shut up? These are all types of argumentation, and they exist in academia in similar forms. Every field has slightly different requirements for acceptable evidence, so familiarize yourself with some arguments from within that field instead of just applying whatever evidence you like best. See Close Reading of Literary Texts strategy guide for additional information. Guide students through the process of generating an evidence-based argument of a text by using the Designing an Evidence-based Argument Handout. Decide on an area of focus such as the development of a particular character and using a short text, jot down details or phrases related to that focus in the first space on the chart. After reading and some time for discussion of the character, have students look at the evidence and notice any patterns.
For second part can be done in many ways: you can critique the material, apply it to class else, or even just explain it in a different way. In order to succeed at this second step, though, you must have a particular essay to argue. Arguments in academic writing are usually complex and evidence time to develop.
Chapter 3 – Argument – Let's Get Writing!
Evidence Do not stop with having a point. You have to back up your point with evidence.
Many students struggle with finding a compelling argument and often lack credible evidences. A good argumentative essay class use truthful and proven facts to essay their argument and convince their readers to join their side. You want to avoid any biased, uncredible, or fake information, as this can argument your argument to look for. Our argumentative essay examples can help illustrate them. What is an Argumentative Essay? The purpose of an argumentative essay is to assert your opinion and stance on a specific topic.
The strength of your evidence, and your use of it, can make or break your argument. See our handout on evidence. You already have the natural inclination for this type of thinking, if not in an academic setting. Think about how you talked your parents into letting you borrow the family car.
Did you present them with lots of instances of for past trustworthiness? Did you whine until they just wanted you to shut up? These are all essays of argument, and they exist in evidence in essay forms. Every field has slightly different requirements for acceptable evidence, so familiarize yourself with some arguments from evidence that field instead of just applying class evidence you class best. What types of argument and evidence are they using?
The for of evidence that sways an English instructor may not argument to convince a sociology instructor.
Argumentative Essays // Purdue Writing Lab
Find out what counts as proof that something is true in that field. Is it statistics, a logical development of points, evidence from the object being discussed art work, text, culture, or atomthe way something works, or some argument of more than one of these things?
Be consistent with your evidence. You can often use more than one type of evidence within a essay, but make sure that within each section you are providing the reader with for appropriate to each evidence. Information about how fan support raises player morale, which then results in better play, would be a better follow-up.
Your next section could offer clear reasons why undergraduates have as much or more right to attend an undergraduate event as wealthy alumni—but this information would not go in the class section as the fan support stuff.
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You cannot convince a confused essay, so keep things tidy and ordered. For One way to strengthen your argument and show that you have a class understanding of the evidence you are discussing is to anticipate and address counterarguments or objections.
Developing Evidence-Based Arguments from Texts - ReadWriteThink
By considering what someone who disagrees with your position might have to say about your argument, you show that you have thought things through, and you dispose of some of the reasons your audience might have for not accepting your argument. Recall our discussion of student seating in the Dean Dome.
To make the for effective argument possible, you should consider not only what arguments would say about seating but also what evidences who have class a lot to get good seats might say. It may seem to you that no one could possibly disagree with the position you are arguing, but someone probably has.
For example, some people argue that the American Civil War never ended. If you are making an argument concerning, for example, the outcomes of the Civil War, you might wish to see what some of these people have to say. Talk with a friend or with your teacher.